Individualized Music Listening

* Individualized music listening programs, such as Music & Memorysm, can have a positive, therapeutic effect on listeners.  These programs differ from clinical music therapy, where music interventions are used intentionally, addressing specific goals, by trained therapists, interacting and adjusting the treatment to the individual needs of the client in real time.

Current Research:


  • Baird, A. & Samson, S. (2009). Memory for music in Alzheimer’s disease: Unforgettable? Neuropsychology Review, 19(1), 85-101.doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9085-2.
    PubMed | Google Scholar
  • Clements-Cortes, A., Pearson, C., & Chang, K. (2015) Creating Effective Music Listening Opportunities. Toronto, Ontario: Baycrest, Abstract | PDF download
  • El Haj, M., Fasotti, L., & Allain, P. (2012). The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer’s disease. Consciousness & Cognition, 21(1), 238-246. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2011.12.005
    Research Gate Full Article
  • Gallagher M. (2011). Evaluating a protocol to train hospice staff in administering individualized music.International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 17(4), 195–201. doi:10.12968/ijpn.2011.17.4.195
    Pub Med Abstract | Research Gate Abstract
  • Gerdner L.A. & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archives Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284–291.
    Pub Med Abstract | APA PsychNet Abstract
  • Gerdner, L. A. (1997). An individualized music intervention for agitation. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association,3(6), 177-184. doi: 10.1016/S1078-3903(97)90043-4
  • Gerdner, L. A. (2000). Effects of individualizes vs. classical “relaxation” music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(1), 49-65. doi: 10.1017/S1041610200006190
    Pub Med Abstract
  • Gerdner, L.A. (2005). Use of individualized music by trained staff and family: translating research into practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(6), 22–30.
    Pub Med Abstract
  • Gerdner, L.A. (2006). Intervention: Individualized music. In: Ronch J, editor. The Electronic Dementia Guide for Excellence (EDGE) Project. Funded by The New York State Department of Health. Available from:
  • Gerdner, L.A. (2007). Evidence-based guideline: Individualized music for elders with dementia. In: Titler MG, editor. Series on Evidence-Based Practice for Older Adults. Iowa City: The University of Iowa College of Nursing Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center, Research Translation and Dissemination Core.
  • Janelli, L.M., Kanski, G.W., Wu, Y.W. (2002). Individualized music–a different approach to the restraint issue. Rehabilitation Nursing,  27(6), 221–226. doi: 10.1002/j.2048-7940.2002.tb02017.x
    Pub Med Abstract | Research Gate Abstract
  • Lesiuk, T. (2010). The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Journal of Music Therapy, 47(2), 137-154.
    Journal of Music Therapy Abstract
  • Sung HC, Chang AM, Abbey J. (2006). The effects of preferred music on agitation of older people with dementia in Taiwan. International Journal Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 999–1000.
    Research Gate Full Article

Contact us today to learn how to bring music therapy to your loved one